A bunion is a bony growth in the lower joint of your big toe. It usually forms where the big toe pushes over against the second toe, forcing the joint to stick out. As a weight-bearing joint, this can be extremely painful. Calluses and blisters can form on the edge of the bunion, doubling the pain. This crippling foot affliction usually gets worse with time. Surgery for bunions can be complicated, expensive, painful and does not guarantee a well-formed foot as the outcome.
There is some debate about the main cause of foot bunion pain, but they tend to fall into 2 categories. Genetics. There is a definite genetic link, meaning that if someone in your family suffers from a hallux abducto valgus, there is a high chance that you will too, although this is not always the case. It may be due to an abnormal foot position such as flat feet, or a medical condition such as hypermobility (where your joints are overly flexible) or arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis or gout). Regularly wearing high heels with a pointed toe puts you at high risk for developing foot bunions. Ill-Fitting Footwear. Poorly fitting shoes are thought to be the other common cause of foot bunion pain. Frequent wear of tight fitting shoes or high heels places excessive pressure on the big toe pushing it into the classic hallux abducto valgus position.
SymptomsRed, thickened skin along the inside edge of the big toe. A bony bump at this site. Pain over the joint, which pressure from shoes makes worse. Big toe turned toward the other toes and may cross over the second toe.
A simple visual exam is all it will take for your doctor to determine whether you have a bunion. He or she may also ask you to move your big toe in order to ascertain your range of motion. Your doctor may also look for any inflammation, redness, or pain. X-rays can help your doctor determine the severity and cause of the bunion. Your doctor may also ask you questions about your footwear, the symptoms you are experiencing, and if other family members also suffer from the condition. All these factors will help him or her diagnose you properly.
Non Surgical Treatment
Non-surgical treatments for bunions may include wearing shoes that fit and that have adequate toe room. Stretching shoes professionally to make them larger. Putting bunion pads over the bunion to cushion the pain. Avoiding activities that cause pain, such as being on your feet for long periods of time. Taking over-the-counter pain relievers when necessary, such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen. Using ice to provide relief from inflammation and pain. Using custom-made orthotic devices.
If your bunion has progressed to the point where you have difficulty walking, or experience pain despite accommodating shoes, you may need surgery. Bunion surgery realigns bone, ligaments, tendons and nerves so your big toe can be brought back to its correct position. Orthopedic surgeons have several techniques to ease your pain. Many bunion surgeries are done on a same-day basis, requiring no hospital stay, using an ankle-block anesthesia. A long recovery is common and may include persistent swelling and stiffness.